Research Project Part Three

November 15, 2006

1. American Airline’s creation of the Frequent-Flier miles program completely revolutionized the airline industry and the way that airlines advertised to consumers. Created as way to save the airline after the deregulation in the late 1970’s, the frequent flier program quickly saved the commercial industry and was adopted by most commercial companies. The very risky manuver managed was far more successful than anticipated and continues through today.

2. I expect to discover how deregulation hurt the industry and how the rewards program was thought of and implemented. I also expect to find how the frequent flier mile program changed over time, such as though cooperation with businesses and credit card companies.

3. Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns

It goes into pretty good detail on the beginings of the AAdvantage Program (frequent flier), and how it was the first to be created. It also gives some background context for the beginning of the program, and the program’s affects and competition.

“New Airline Figures Show Unused Awards Mounting” Wall Street Journal 15 July 1987

This article shows the popularity of the program, and the looming worry that it would eventually cause the downfall of the airline industry. It also shows how airlines make a larger profit from frequent flier program due to unused miles.”

“American Air, Pan Am Drop Joint Program” Wall Street Journal 17 August, 1987

This article shows changes in the frequent flier program due to changes in cooperation between companies.

4. I simply need to compile more research before i write the paper.


Research Proj. Part 2

November 1, 2006

I would like to do my assignment on American Airlines. Specifically, how their advertising changed through the decades and in face of big historical events such as 9/11.


The Advertising Age Encyclopedia of Advertising Vol. 1/ New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2003

Goodrum, Charles; Advertising in America: the First 200 Years; New York 2000

Riggs, Thoman; The Encyclopedia of Major Marketing Campaigns; Detroit: Gale Group, 2000

Heimann, Jim; All-American Ads: Taschen, 2001 *misceleneous decades

2. Each section in the essay has their own thesis, however all if the thesises contribute to the overall argument of the essay. For example, the first one, “Men on Display” introduces the concept of men in advertising and sets the tone and overall themea of the essay. The most satirical of her sections begins with the section, “Honey, What Do I Wear” goes on todiscuss the juxtaposition of societal thinking of what men should think like andwhat the industry is trying to impose upon them. I like how she organized the essay so that one argument seemed to give way to another.

3. Bordo makes the distinction that women are led to believe that they should be aesthetically perfect in the eyes of others, thus they have more pressure to dress and appear completely in style. However, the men, in society’s eyes are not supposed to care about the looks and gazes of others, they are supposed to be independent of scruitiny and dress how they wish. Bordo shows that this is not realistic, that men are scruitinized just as women are and that media also puts pressure on a man to dress and behave a certain way. I agree with Bordo on the point that there is pressure on both sexes to act and appear a certain way, which influences how many people behave.



Research Paper Topic

October 25, 2006

For my research paper I would like to research airplane travel advertisments and media. I think it would be interesting to see how airplanes are presented after their creation, moving into public transportation and the changes in advertising airfare after 9/11 and other events.

Kotex Ads

October 11, 2006

Both of the ads use the motive of being a “proper woman” as a reason to buy their product. The first in the context of teaching proper societal behavior, the second by enhancing the woman’s sexuality at a point in the month where she feels the least sexual. Each add exists within the social context of that particular decade. The first article comes from the 1950’s, where “women’s issues” were not to be discussed and everyone had to behave in the proper “Leave it to Beaver”family way. Thus, in this ad, the actual advertising for pads occupies very little of the ad, and the rest of it is overshadowed by the photographs and the writting, so that it seems more family friendly than pads. The second ad is far more in one’s face about what it is selling, and the message isn’t hidden as in the first ad. In the context of the time period, women’s issues had been brought more to the forefront and pubesant education had started being introduced, so the whole concept of the period wasn’t as taboo is society. This ad attempts to romanticise the menstral cycle by using the drawing of a very attractive woman appearing half-dressed. It’s as if this ad is telling women to be more relaxed and beautiful during their period, which is typically the opposite of what they really feel, by buying the product.


image courtesy of:
This ad is from the same time as the second one, though it paints an entirely different picture than the one of the beautiful model. When women first see this, they laugh because they can’t help but agree witht he shirt. This provides a more understanding view and that since Kotex understands what the woman is going through, then women should buy Kotex. This is very different from the previous ad which portrays and ideal of beauty rather than understanding.


image courtesy of:

This image, created during World War 2 creates a very patriotic image of the period. This ad tells women, “since you have to go to work for your country, then buy kotex so you won’t be inconvenienced by a period”. The war-time placement of the ad makes it completely different from the other ads in that it not only sells a product but it promotes patriotism.

Douglass Reading Questions

October 4, 2006

1. In the images she describes, she uses descriptions of “womanly” that stem from the traditional societal expectations of what “womanly” is, and how it changes through the decades. For example, the more traditional views of “lady like” or “womanly” behavior it references the stay-at-home wife and mother who happily takes care of her house, husband and children, and who is always supportive and the background. However, once women started working, she shows how this image progresses into adding another role or working wife/mother who then has to come home after work and perform these wifely duties. Along with the duties, Douglass talks about how women must also comform to the ideals of beauty and youth, as through her talks about collagen and buns of steel, in order to be considered “womanly”.

2. According to Douglass, the media is responsible for shaping societal expectations of what a woman’s body should be like. Once it shakes these expectations, then it becomes the near societal norm, thus influencing what women believe they have to do, or have to wear, or have to behave. What could be at stake in this is the individulaity of a woman and her independence of thought based on societal pressures.

October 1, 2006

03n_arquette_narrowweb__200x298.jpgfemaleadvert1.jpgPhoto by: Herb Ritts

This advertisement for its photography goes against the grain in what Douglass’ essay is that this is a photograph of an elderly woman not attempting to look younger or regain a figure. The woman in this photograph is simply living in the body that she has.

03n_arquette_narrowweb__200x298.jpg Photo:

This photograph is an alternative is an alternative representation of a woman because, this woman is advertising a popular show in primetime. Whereas most titular female characters are as Susan Douglass metions in her essay, this one is different. This woman plays a middle aged homemaker who is fine with how she looks and her station in life. She doesn’t obssess with getting thinner and is considered famous despite the fact that she is not model thin with a perfect body.

osh_alalsl_work_media_maud_duncan_sm.jpgPhoto: Arkansas History Commission, unknown photographer

This photograph shows an elderly woman who is self sufficient and not obssessed with being pretty, as she is dressed quite practically and simply. In Douglass’ essay, she talks about how women toe the line of having to be the ideal woman and having jobs of their own. In this photo, the elderly woman has crossed the line and become selfsufficient in that she has her own job.


This photograph shows an elderly woman going completely against the grain of society and becomming a criminal. THis is a far cry from attempting to cover up the ageing process or being fit or being an “ideal” woman.

yurikochiyama.gifPhoto: Associated Press

This photograph shows an elderly woman standing up for what she believes in, and helping others. Rather than working on helping her family or being at home, she is out among the public being active in her own way, rather than being selfconscious.

Berger Questions

September 20, 2006

1. In Berger’s essay, “History” stands for an idolization of the past, where the actual events and people are immortalized by those who continue to study it. It seems that “history” is only a twisted perception of what happened years or centuries before as told from a certain point of view. Within paintings, Berger uses “history” as something that is “mystified” in that it is considered something unreachable for understanding. Because of the inability to imagine history, Berger says that this prevents people from truly seeing a painting because one cannot see the events and surroundings which shaped its creation. As one cannot perceive the “why” and “what” of the painting, then people read far too much into its meaning, causing the painting to be figuratively lost from sight alltogether.

In Hals’ painting, he draws that when critiquing the painting, art historians critique the painting itself rather than taking into account the history surrounding it, instead focusing more on things like color and contrast. In writting about the painting, Berger has attempted to illustrate the gap between the painting as it is and how people experience the painting now in an effort to try and “redescover” the painting. By “situating” us in history, he is attempting to force the reader into experiencing the painting within its own context so that we readers can really experience and truly experience the painting.

2. Berger’s account of the painting could be seen as an attempt to demystify the painting and try to replace it in the historical, political, and societal of the time that it was made in order to try and experience it as it was “meant” to be experienced as. No I don’t think that he is “really” seeing, and I think that he recognizes this. I believe that he realizes that it is very difficult, maybe impossible to truly “see” the painting because one cannot fully perceive the past. I think that Berger is attemping to “really” see it thus, he becomes as close to seeing it as he can. I think that he knows that he has his own bias and perspective on what the painting should be and what he should see- thus, his sight is affected. He knows the history and he knows his bias, thus he believes that he is mostly seeing the painting.

1. Mr. Percy seems to progress from a more general view into a more specific one. It’s like he’s attempting to apply his ideas to more specific examples rather than generalized views.

2. The loss that Mr. Percy has such concern for is the loss of the ability to have a “true” experience in order to have an experience that is considered to be “right” and “acceptable” to society. The interests that are represented here are interests to the present and to the person or people who are having the experience. Thus the interests are to society as a whole.

After reading this essay and attempting to decode it (yes, it was like IB come back again) piece by piece, i was left with one main question: and we are supposed to fix this how? It felt like the whole essay was telling us we were helpless creatures and that we were all slaves to something uncontrolable. Mr. Percy gave example after example and all that I could draw from it was that it was impossible to escape the hole that humanity has dug itself into. After reading this, my only question was really “How?”. How do we fix this? How do we truly enjoy an experience? How do we get out of this rather cynical view of life?

At first I struggled with Mr. Percy’s attempt to turn his ideas into a math problem, because it seemed out of place; but then I just accepted the fact that it was there and meant to convey his point and I moved on. Sometimes I had trouble following the author’s train of thought, so I would have to reread a passage a second time. There were times, towards the end of the essay, when I had trouble identifying with what Mr. Percy was trying to say, as if I couldn’t quite agree with it or believe it.

We can relate this essay to our discussion of cliche because Mr. Percy is saying that life is a cliche in that experiences are never really unique, but are instead clouded by our preconceived notions and from the perspectives of other people.

I think that Mr. Percy makes an interesting, if not verbose, argument that people aren’t really experiencing life for themselves but are living off of expectations and stereotypes.